ICANN Accredited Registrars

What was ICANN's original role in regards to domain names?

ICANN was originally formed in response to The Green Paper which wanted a new non-profit organization to handle DNS. Source

What is ICANN's current role in regards to domain names?

ICANN accredits restrars of domain names. Source

What is a registrar in relation to domain names?

A registrar is an entity that offers domain name registration services to registrants in generic top-level domains (gTLDs) Source

What is an ICANN Accredited Registrar?

An accredited ICANN Registrar has to adhere to ICANN's RAA (Registrar Accredidation Agreement). Source

Find and review the list of ICANN accredited Registrars.

Here's the list!

What is a domain reseller? For example www.heartland-webhosting.com and bluehost.com are both resellers who can sell domain names. Also, What gives them the ability to sell domain names? Who can be a domain reseller? How much does it cost to become a reseller?

A domain reseller is a "third-party company that offers domain name registration services through a registrar but not all are ICANN-accredited registrars." These companies help users find thier domain and purchase it. A reseller must be tied to an Accredited ICANN Registrar. You can become a reseller for anywhere from free (or what some companies claim is free) to $15/mo through GoDaddy, the largest reseller currently. Source